The metallic element beryllium was first discovered from beryl by the scientist Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin in 1798.In 1798, the French mineralogist R.J.Haüy observed that the optical properties of emerald and the common mineral beryl were the same, so he requested the French chemist Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin to conduct chemical testing, and Vauquelin put caustic After the potassium solution is added to the acid solution of beryl, a hydroxide precipitate is obtained which is insoluble in excess base. Thus, he proved that the two substances had the same composition and contained a new element.
In 1828, metal beryllium was obtained by reducing beryllium oxide and beryllium chloride with metal calcium and potassium, respectively.
In 1898, German chemist F. Wohler produced 99.5%~99.8% pure beryllium by electrolysis.
Beryllium Name Origin
Beryllium salt has a sweet taste and is called sweet soil, so the new element was first named “glutenium”, which comes from the French “glucose”, which means “glucose”. Later, because ytterbium salts were found to have the same sweet taste as beryllium salts, “acenaphthium” was renamed “beryllium”, which means “beryl” in Greek. The name “beryllium” was named by the German chemist F.Wohler.
Beryllium Industry Development
The metal beryllium tube has experienced a history of more than 200 years since the discovery of beryllium, but the industrial scale and application research of beryllium only started after the 1940s. At that time, it was a period of vigorous development of nuclear technology, and the application of beryllium in the field of nuclear technology promoted its research and industrialization process. The production and consumption of beryllium have always been restricted by political, economic and military factors in developed countries. At present, the United States, which has strong economic and military strength, is still one of the main countries in the consumption of beryllium and its alloy materials, and the consumption peak of beryllium appeared in the mid-1980s when the arms competition was fierce.
The Application Of Beryllium In Ancient China
Bronze Beryllium – Weapon
- Beryllium is one of the famous long weapons in ancient times. It is a long-handled weapon originating from short swords. Many beryllium soldiers unearthed in the past were mistaken for short swords. The earliest ancient philology work in China, “Shuowen Jiezi” (Eastern Han Dynasty, written by Xu Shen) explained the concept of beryllium in this way – “Beryllium people are equipped with swords and swords”.
- According to the literature, beryllium may have originated in the Yin and Zhou Dynasties and prevailed in the Qin and Han Dynasties of the Warring States Period. Beryllium was first known as “Yi Spear”, and in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the name evolved into magnesium, beryllium, titanium, etc. During the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, beryllium was prevalent and widely used. In the Western Han Dynasty, it was changed to iron, and gradually disappeared after the middle of the Western Han Dynasty. There are many records of this weapon in ancient books, but unfortunately, no complete objects have been unearthed for a long time. The copper beryllium unearthed in the pits of the Qin Terracotta Warriors provided valuable material information for the Chinese.
- The difference between copper beryllium and spear, in addition to the shape of the head, is mainly due to the different method of handling the handle: the handle of the spear is incorporated into the spear barrel, while the beryllium is that the stem of the beryllium is inserted into the wooden handle, and the external rope is used to bind it. The long handle end of the beryllium is equipped with a copper bottle, and the beryllium body is also equipped with a sheath to protect the blade.
- The bronze beryllium unearthed in the pit of the Qin Terracotta Warriors has a head of about 35 cm and a stem of about 12 cm. The wooden handle of the beryllium is mostly rotten and damaged. The words “Sixteen” are engraved on it. “Fifteen Years” is the year of Qin Shihuang, “Temple Workers” is the official agency of the central government that manufactures weapons, and the name of the craftsman who actually produced it is also engraved on the beryllium.
- 16 pieces of bronze beryllium have been found in the pit of the Qin Terracotta Warriors, which can correct the mistake of mistaking beryllium as a short sword in the past. According to the discovered copper beryllium, the full shape of beryllium is composed of beryllium head and copper. Some scholars believe that beryllium (that is, long handle) has two types of bamboo and wooden handles. And beryllium also has two kinds of flat stem copper beryllium and copper beryllium, copper beryllium is mainly popular in Zhao, Chu and other countries during the Warring States Period. Flat stem copper beryllium is mainly popular in Qin state.
Bronze Beryllium Needles: Prehistoric Acupuncture Instruments
Nine needles, the needles are named. The general term for nine types of needles. Published “The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine”. That is, the needle needle, the needle needle, the needle needle, the needle needle, the beryllium needle, the needle needle, the needle needle, the long needle and the big needle. “Lingshu·Official Needle”: “Nine needles are suitable, each has its own function; length and size, each has its own advantages, and it should not be used in its own way, and the disease can be moved.” Choose to get rid of illness.
Beryllium needle, one of the nine needles, is also known as (Jifei) needle, beryllium knife, sword needle. “Lingshu·Nine Needles”: “The beryllium needle, which is taken from the front of the sword, is two and a half wide and four inches long. It is the main carbuncle and pus, and the two are hot.” It is a needle in the shape of a sword with blades on both sides. It is mostly used in surgery to puncture carbuncle and discharge pus and blood.